- laager[laager 词源字典]
- laager: see lair
[laager etymology, laager origin, 英语词源]
- label: see lap
- labial: see lip
- labour:  Labour comes via Old French labour from Latin labor. This has been linked with the verb labāre ‘slip’, and if the two were related it would mean that the underlying etymological meaning of labour was something like ‘stumble under a burden’. Most of the modern European descendants of Latin labor have progressed from the broad sense ‘work, exertion’ to more specialized meanings – French labourer denotes ‘plough’, for instance, and Spanish labrar ‘plough, carve, embroider’, etc. English has retained it as a formal alternative to work, although the additional obstetric sense developed in the 16th century.
- lace:  Lace originally meant ‘noose’ or ‘snare’, and its underlying semantic connections are not with ‘string’ or ‘thread’ but with ‘entrapment’ or ‘enticement’. Its ultimate source was Latin laqueus ‘noose’, which was related to the verb lacere ‘lure, deceive’ (source of English delicious and elicit). This passed into Vulgar Latin as *lacium, which in due course diversified into Italian laccio, Spanish lazo (source of English lasso ), and French lacs.
It was the latter’s Old French predecessor, laz or las, that gave English lace. The sense ‘noose’ had died out by the early 17th century, but by then it had already developed via ‘string, cord’ to ‘cord used for fastening clothes’. ‘Open fabric made of threads’ emerged in the mid-16th century. Latch  is thought to be distantly related.
=> delicious, elicit, lasso, latch
- lachrymal: see tear
- lachrymose: see tear
- lack:  The word lack is not known to have existed in Old English, although it is by no means impossible that it did. If it was a borrowing, a possible source would have been Middle Dutch lak ‘deficiency, fault’. This has been traced back to a prehistoric Germanic *lak-, a variant of which produced English leak.
- lackey:  By a circuitous series of steps, lackey is of Arabic origin. English borrowed it from French laquais, which originally denoted a sort of foot-soldier, and hence a ‘footman’ or ‘servant’. French in turn got it from Catalan alacay, whose source was Arabic al-qādī ‘the judge’ (the Spanish version alcalde ‘magistrate’ was acquired by English in the 17th century).
- laconic:  The Greek term for an inhabitant of the ancient region of Laconia, in the southern Peloponnese, and of its capital Sparta, was Lákōn. The Spartans were renowned for not using two words where one would do (there is a story that when Philip of Macedon threatened invasion with ‘If I enter Laconia, I will raze Sparta to the ground’, the Spartans’ only reply was ‘If’), and so English used the adjective laconic (from Greek Lakōnikós) for ‘sparing of speech’.
- lacquer: see lake
- lacrosse:  French la crosse means ‘the hooked stick’ (crosse was originally borrowed from a prehistoric Germanic *kruk-, from which English got crook and crutch). French speakers in Canada used the term jeu de la crosse ‘game of the hooked stick’ to name a game played by the native Americans with netted sticks, and in due course this became reduced and lexicalized to lacrosse.
=> crook, crutch
- lactation: see lettuce
- lacuna: see lake
- lad:  Lad originally meant ‘male of low status or social rank’, and hence ‘male servant’, but by the 14th century its progression to the presentday ‘young male’ was well under way. It is not known where it came from, but there seems to be a strong likelihood of a Scandinavian origin (Norwegian has -ladd in compounds referring to ‘(male) persons’).
- ladder: [OE] Etymologically, a ladder is something that is ‘leant’ up against a wall. Like Greek klīmax ‘ladder’ (source of English climax), it goes back ultimately to the Indo- European base *khli-, source of English lean. Its West Germanic relatives are German leiter and Dutch leer.
=> climax, lean
- lade: see load
- ladle: see load
- lady: [OE] Originally, the term lady denoted a ‘kneader of bread’. It comes from Old English hloefdige, a compound formed from hlǣf ‘bread’ (ancestor of modern English loaf) and an element *dig- ‘knead’ (related to English dough). It is a measure of the symbolic (and actual) importance of bread in medieval households that (like lord, also a derivative of loaf) lady came, as a provider of bread, to be applied to someone in a position of authority within a house.
=> dairy, dough, loaf, lord
- lag: English has three distinct words lag. The verb ‘fall behind’  is perhaps of Scandinavian origin (Norwegian has lagga ‘go slowly’), although a link has been suggested with the lag of fog, seg, lag, a dialect expression used in children’s games which represents an alteration of first, second, last. Lag ‘insulate’  comes from an earlier noun lag ‘barrel stave’, which was also probably borrowed from a Scandinavian language (Swedish has lagg ‘stave’); the original material used for ‘lagging’ was wooden laths.
And finally the noun lag ‘prisoner’  seems to have come from an earlier verb lag, which originally meant ‘steal’, and then ‘catch, imprison’; but no one knows where this came from.