eclipseyoudaoicibaDictYouDict[eclipse 词源字典]
eclipse: [13] From the point of view of the observer, an object which has been eclipsed has ‘gone away’ – is no longer there. And that in fact is the etymological foundation of the word. It comes, via Old French and Latin, from Greek ékleipsis, a derivative of ekleípein ‘no longer appear or be present’. This was a compound verb formed from the prefix ek- ‘out, away’ and leípein ‘leave’ (a distant relative of English leave).

Its adjectival derivative, ekleiptikós, passed into English as ecliptic [14], which was applied to the apparent path of the Sun relative to the stars because that is the line along which eclipses caused by the moon occur.

=> leave[eclipse etymology, eclipse origin, 英语词源]
ecology: [19] Interpreted literally, ecology means ‘study of houses’. The word was coined, as ökologie, by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel in the 1870s, on the basis of Greek oikos (as in economy). This means literally ‘house’, but Haeckel was using it in the wider sense ‘dwelling, habitat’. English adopted the word soon after its coinage, originally in the quasi- Latin form oecology.
=> economy
economy: [16] The underlying notion contained in the word economy is of ‘household management’. It comes, via French or Latin, from Greek oikonomíā, a derivative of oikonómos, a term for the ‘steward of a household’. This was a compound noun formed from oikos ‘house’ (a word related to the -wich element in many English place-names) and némein ‘manage’ (ultimate source of English antinomian and nomad).

The original sense ‘household management’ was carried through into English. It broadened out in the 17th century to the management of a nation’s resources (a concept at first termed more fully political economy), while the use of the derivative economics for the theoretical study of the creation and consumption of wealth dates from the early 19th century.

=> antinomian, ecology, nomad
ecstasy: [14] Etymologically, someone who is ecstatic is out of his or her mind. The word comes, via Old French extasie and late Latin extasis, from Greek ékstasis, a derivative of the verb existánai ‘displace, drive out of one’s mind’. This was a compound formed from the prefix ek- ‘out’ and histánai ‘place’ (a distant relative of English stand).

The underlying notion of being ‘beside oneself, in the grip of extreme passion’ survives in modern English in relation to mystic experiences or trances, and also, albeit archaically, in such phrases as ‘an ecstasy of rage’, and the specific sense ‘delight’ developed only comparatively recently, apparently in the 17th century.

=> stand
eczema: [18] A person suffering from eczema has a skin that is, in a rather gruesome metaphor, ‘boiling over’. The word comes from Greek ékzema ‘eruption’, a compound formed from the prefix ek- ‘out’ and the verb zein ‘boil, ferment’. This in turn goes back to the Indo-European base *jes-, source also of Sanskrit yas- ‘boil, foam’, Welsh ias ‘boiling’, and English yeast.
=> yeast
eddy: [15] The ultimate source of eddy appears to be a prehistoric Germanic particle meaning ‘back, again’, represented in Old English by ed-, in Old High German by et-, and in Old Norse by ith- (it is related to Latin et ‘and’ and its various Romance descendants, such as French et and Italian ed). According to this theory, an eddy would thus be ‘water that flows back’.

What is not altogether clear, however, is precisely how that prehistoric particle became eddy. Perhaps the most likely candidate as the missing link is Old Norse itha ‘whirlpool’, but it has also been suggested that Old English may have had a word *edwǣg, whose second element, ‘wave’, would be related to English way and vogue.

edge: [OE] Edge is probably the main native English representative of the Indo-European base *ak- ‘be sharp or pointed’, which has contributed so many words to the language via Latin and Greek (such as acid, acrid, acute, acne, alacrity, and oxygen). Its Germanic descendant was *ag-, on which was based the noun *agjā, source of German ecke ‘corner’, Swedish egg ‘edge’ (a probable relative of English egg ‘urge’), and English edge. The word’s application to a ‘border’ or ‘boundary’ dates from the late 14th century.
=> acid, acne, acrid, acute, alacrity, egg, oxygen
edict: [15] An edict is literally that which is ‘spoken out’ or ‘proclaimed’. It was acquired directly from Latin ēdictum, which comes from the past participle of ēdīcere ‘proclaim’. This was a compound verb formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and dīcere ‘say’ (source of English diction, dictionary, dictate amongst a host of others). The passing resemblance of edict to edit is quite fortuitous, for they are completely unrelated.
=> dictate, diction, dictionary
edify: [14] As its close relative edifice [14] suggests, edify has to do literally with ‘building’. And in fact its underlying etymological sense is ‘building a hearth’. That was the original sense of Latin aedis. Gradually, though, it was extended, in a familiar metaphorical transition, from ‘hearth’ to ‘home’ and ‘dwelling’. Addition of a verbal element related to facere ‘make’ produced aedificāre ‘build a house’, or simply ‘build’.

Its figurative application to ‘instruction’ or ‘enlightenment’ took place in Latin, and has no doubt been reinforced in English (which acquired the word from Old French edifier) by its accidental similarity to educate.

edit: [18] Etymologically, someone who edits a newspaper ‘gives it out’, or in effect ‘publishes’ it. And that in fact is how the word was first used in English: when William Enfield wrote in his 1791 translation of Brucker’s Historia critica philosophiae that a certain author ‘wrote many philosophical treatises which have never been edited’, he meant ‘published’.

This usage comes directly from ēditus, the past participle of Latin ēdere ‘put out, exhibit, publish’, which was a compound verb formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and dare ‘put, give’ (source of English date, donate, etc). In its modern application, ‘prepare for publication’, it is mainly a back-formation from editor [17], which acquired this particular sense in the 18th century. (French éditeur still means ‘publisher’, and the term editor is used in that sense in some British publishing houses.)

=> date, donate
educate: [15] To educate people is literally to ‘lead them out’. The word comes from the past participle of Latin ēducāre, which meant ‘bring up, rear’ as well as more specifically ‘educate’. It was related to ēdūcere ‘lead out’ (source of English educe [15]), a compound verb formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and dūcere ‘lead’ (source of English duct, duke, and a whole host of derivatives such as deduce and seduce).
=> conduct, deduce, duct, duke, educe, produce, seduce
eerie: [13] Eerie seems to come ultimately from Old English earg ‘cowardly’, a descendant of prehistoric Germanic *arg-, although the connection has not been established for certain. It emerged in Scotland and northern England in the 13th century in the sense ‘cowardly, fearful’, and it was not until the 18th century that it began to veer round semantically from ‘afraid’ to ‘causing fear’. Burns was one of the first to use it so in print: ‘Be thou a bogle by the eerie side of an auld thorn’. In the course of the 19th century its use gradually spread further south to become general English.
effect: [14] Etymologically, an effect is that which is ‘accomplished’ or ‘done’. The word comes (probably via Old French effect) from effectus, the past participle of Latin efficere ‘perform, accomplish, complete’, or literally ‘work out’. This was a compound verb formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and facēre ‘make, do’ (source of English fact, factory, etc).

The English verbal use, ‘bring about’, is a 16th-century development based on the noun. (The similar affect also comes ultimately from Latin facēre, but with the prefix ad- ‘to’ rather than ex-.) Latin efficere is also the source of English efficacious [16] and efficient [14]. The feck- of feckless is an abbreviated version of effect.

=> efficacious, efficient, fact, factory, fashion, feckless
effendi: see authentic
effervescent: see fervent
effete: [17] Latin effētus meant literally ‘that has given birth’. It was a compound adjective, based on the prefix ex- ‘out’ and fētus ‘childbearing, offspring’ (source of English foetus). Its use spread metaphorically first to ‘worn out by giving birth’ and finally to simply ‘exhausted’, the senses in which English originally acquired it. The word’s modern connotations of ‘overrefinement’ and ‘decadence’ did not develop until the 19th century.
efficacious: see effect
efficient: see effect
effigy: [16] Effigy comes ultimately from the Latin verb effingere ‘form, portray’. This was a compound formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and fingere ‘make, shape’ (source of English faint, feign, fiction, figment, and related to English dairy and dough). It formed the basis of the noun effigiēs ‘representation, likeness, portrait’, which was borrowed into English in the 16th century as effigies: ‘If that you were the good Sir Rowland’s son, as you have whisper’d faithfully you were, and as mine eye doth his effigies witness most truly limn’d and living in your face, be truly welcome hither’, Shakespeare, As you like it 1600.

By the 18th century, however, this had come to be regarded as a plural form, and so a new singular, effigy, was created.

=> dairy, dough, faint, fiction, figment
effluent: [19] Effluent is that which ‘flows out’. The word comes from the present participle of Latin effluere, a compound verb formed from the prefix ex- ‘out’ and fluere ‘flow’ (source of English fluctuate, fluent, fluid, flux, and a host of derivatives). English originally acquired it as an adjective in the 18th century, but did not begin to use it in its present-day noun senses until the mid 19th century. From the same source come effluvium [17] and efflux [17].
=> fluctuate, fluent, fluid, flux