- fortune[fortune 词源字典]
- fortune:  Latin fors meant ‘chance’ (it came ultimately from Indo-European *bhrtis, a derivative of the same base as produced English bear ‘carry’, and hence signified etymologically ‘that which fate brings along’). Formed from fors was fortuna, which was used both for the personification of ‘chance’ as a goddess, and for ‘luck’ in general – and in particular for ‘good luck’.
The notion of ‘good luck’ persists in most of the word’s modern descendants, including English fortune (acquired via Old French fortune) and fortunate , although Italian fortunale has opted for the downside of ‘luck’ – it means ‘storm at sea’. Another derivative of Latin fors was the adjective fortuitus ‘happening by chance’, from which English gets fortuitous .
=> bear, fortuitous[fortune etymology, fortune origin, 英语词源]
- fortune (n.)
- c. 1300, "chance, luck as a force in human affairs," from Old French fortune "lot, good fortune, misfortune" (12c.), from Latin fortuna "chance, fate, good luck," from fors (genitive fortis) "chance, luck," possibly ultimately from PIE root *bher- (1) "to carry" (see infer). If so, the sense might be "that which is brought."
Sense of "owned wealth" is first found in Spenser; probably it evolved from senses of "one's condition or standing in life," hence "position as determined by wealth," then "wealth, large estate" itself. Often personified as a goddess; her wheel betokens vicissitude. Soldier of fortune first attested 1660s. Fortune 500 "most profitable American companies" is 1955, from the list published annually in "Fortune" magazine. Fortune-hunter "one who seeks to marry for wealth" is from 1680s.