- whole[whole 词源字典]
- whole: [OE] Whole is at the centre of a tightlyknit family of English words descended from prehistoric Germanic *khailaz ‘undamaged’ (the other members – hail ‘salute’, hale, hallow, heal, health, and holy – have have branched off in different semantic directions, but whole has stayed fairly close to its source). The Germanic form, which also produced German heil, Dutch heel, and Swedish and Danish hel, went back to an Indo-European *qoilos, source also of Russian celyj ‘whole’ and Welsh coel ‘good omen’. Hale  originated as a northern variant of whole (whose wh- spelling emerged in the 16th century).
The compound wholesome was probably formed in Old English, but it is not recorded until the 12th century.
=> hail, hale, hallow, heal, health, holy[whole etymology, whole origin, 英语词源]
- whole (adj.)
- Old English hal "entire, whole; unhurt, uninjured, safe; healthy, sound; genuine, straightforward," from Proto-Germanic *haila- "undamaged" (cognates: Old Saxon hel, Old Norse heill, Old Frisian hal, Middle Dutch hiel, Dutch heel, Old High German, German heil "salvation, welfare"), from PIE *kailo- "whole, uninjured, of good omen" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic celu "whole, complete;" see health).
The spelling with wh- developed early 15c. The sense in whole number is from early 14c. Whole milk is from 1782. On the whole "considering all facts or circumstances" is from 1690s. For phrase whole hog, see hog (n.).
- whole (n.)
- "entire body or company; the full amount," late 14c., from whole (adj.).