- adj. 犯规的；邪恶的；污秽的；淤塞的
- vt. 犯规；弄脏；淤塞；缠住，妨害
- vi. 犯规；腐烂；缠结
- n. 犯规；缠绕
- adv. 违反规则地，不正当地
CET6 TEM8 IELTS GRE 考 研 TOEFL
broad 宽广的 breadth 宽度
deep 深的 depth 深度
full 满的 fill 装满
foul 脏的 filth 脏东西
hale 强壮的 heal 治愈
high 高的 height 高度
hot 热的 heat 热
long 长的 length 长度
proud 骄傲的 pride 骄傲
strong 强壮的,有力的 strength 强度,力
3. filth => foul.
来自PIE*pu, 腐烂，发臭，词源同pus, putrid. 可能来自人们闻到臭味时发出的声音。
- foul: [OE] The underlying meaning of foul is probably ‘rotten, putrid’, with overtones of ‘evilsmelling’. It goes back to an Indo-European *pu-, which may originally have been inspired by the same reaction as produced the English exclamation of disgust at a bad smell, pooh. Amongst its other off-spring were Latin pūs, source of English pus, purulent, and supurate, and Latin putridus, source of English putrid.
Its Germanic descendant was *fu-, on which the adjective *fūlaz was based. This produced German faul ‘rotten, lazy’, Dutch vuil ‘dirty’, and English foul, and also the derived noun filth [OE]. Defile ‘make dirty’ is not directly related, but its form was influenced by the now obsolete verb befile, which was connected with foul.
=> filth, pus, putrid, suppurate
- foul (adj.)
- Old English ful "rotten, unclean, vile, corrupt, offensive to the senses," from Proto-Germanic *fulaz (cognates: Old Saxon and Old Frisian ful, Middle Dutch voul, Dutch vuil, Old High German fül, German faul, Gothic füls), from PIE *pu- (2) "to rot, decay," perhaps from the sound made in reaction to smelling something bad (see pus).
Old English ful occasionally meant "ugly" (as contrasted with fæger (adj.), modern fair (adj.)), and this sense became frequent in Middle English. The cognate in Swedish is the usual word for "ugly." Of weather from mid-14c. In the sporting sense of "irregular, unfair, contrary to established rule or practice" it is first attested 1797, though foul play is recorded from mid-15c. Baseball sense of "out of play" attested by 1860.
- foul (v.)
- Old English fulian "to become foul, rot, decay," from ful (see foul (adj.)). Transitive meaning "make foul, pollute" is from c. 1200. Meaning "become entangled" (chiefly nautical) is from 1832, probably from foul (adj.) in the sense "obstructed by anything fixed or attached" (late 15c.). "A term generally used in contrast to clear, and implies entangled, embarrassed or contrary to: e.g. to foul the helm, to find steerage impracticable owing to the rudder becoming entangled with rope or other gear" [Sir Geoffrey Callender, "Sea Passages," 1943]. Related: Fouled; fouling. Hence also foul anchor (1769), one with the slack of the cable twisted round the stock or a fluke; noted by 1832 as naval insignia.
- 1. A series of technical foul-ups delayed the launch of the new product.
- 2. Collins was in a foul mood even before the interviews began.
- 3. One of the judges thought it was a foul throw.
- 4. He picked up his first booking for a 45th-minute foul on Bull.
- 5. Steve Vickers was yellow-carded for a foul on Hunt.
[ foul 造句 ]