CET4 TEM4 考 研 CET6
来自PIE*kei,躺下，休息，词源同civil,home.-ty,名词后缀。词义由休息引申至家园，住所。 在中世纪city 和town 在规模上并无明显区别。
- city:  The Latin word for ‘city’ was urbs (whence English urban), but a ‘citizen’ was cīvis. From this was derived the noun cīvitās, which originally had the abstract sense ‘citizenship’. Gradually it acquired more concrete connotations, eventually coming to be used as a synonym of urbs. It passed into English via Old French cite, and at first was used for any settlement, regardless of size (although it was evidently felt to be a grander term than the native borough); the modern distinction between towns and cities developed during the 14th century.
The Italian descendant of Latin cīvitās is città. A now obsolete variant of this was cittade, whose diminutive form is the source of English citadel .
=> citadel, citizen, civil
- city (n.)
- early 13c., in medieval usage a cathedral town, but originally "any settlement," regardless of size (distinction from town is 14c., though in English it always seems to have ranked above borough), from Old French cite "town, city" (10c., Modern French cité), from earlier citet, from Latin civitatem (nominative civitas; in Late Latin sometimes citatem) originally "citizenship, condition or rights of a citizen, membership in the community," later "community of citizens, state, commonwealth" (used, for instance of the Gaulish tribes), from civis "townsman," from PIE root *kei- "to lie; bed, couch; homestead; beloved, dear" (see cemetery).
The sense has been transferred from the inhabitants to the place. The Latin word for "city" was urbs, but a resident was civis. Civitas seems to have replaced urbs as Rome (the ultimate urbs) lost its prestige. Loss of Latin -v- is regular in French in some situations (compare alleger from alleviare; neige from nivea; jeune from juvenis. A different sound evolution from the Latin word yielded Italian citta, Catalan ciutat, Spanish ciudad, Portuguese cidade.
Replaced Old English burh (see borough). London is the city from 1550s. As an adjective from c. 1300. City hall first recorded 1670s to fight city hall is 1913, American English; city slicker first recorded 1916 (see slick); both American English. City limits is from 1825. The newspaper city desk attested from 1878. Inner city first attested 1968. City state (also city-state) is attested from 1877.
- 1. After years of neglect and decline the city was cleaning itself up.
- 2. The journey ends in the ancient city of Marrakesh.
- 3. Leningrad was the third alien city to offer him a surrogate home.
- 4. Officers were going to retake sectors of the city.
- 5. She had an entree into the city's culti-vated society.
[ city 造句 ]