- n. 区；自治的市镇
- n. (Borough)人名；(英)伯勒
1. *burg- / *bourg- 'protect, fortress' (whence also bury), a variant of *berg- (source of English barrow 'mound' and German berg 'mountain, hill') and *borg- (source of English borrow).
2. *burg- / *bourg- meaning began to change from 'fortress', through 'fortified town', to simply 'town'.
3. *burg- => borough (Old English burg or burh).
4. 本义：a dwelling or dwellings within a fortified enclosure.
来自PIE *bhergh(2), 高，高山。原指建于山上的城堡。参照电影《魔戒》建于高山的壮观的钢铎城。词源同burg, 城镇。
- borough: [OE] Borough (Old English burg or burh) comes from Germanic *burgs ‘fortress’ (whence also German burg ‘castle, stronghold’). It was a derivative of the base *burg- ‘protect’ (whence also bury), a variant of *berg- (source of English barrow ‘mound’ and German berg ‘mountain’) and *borg- (source of English borrow).
At some time during the prehistoric Germanic period a progression in meaning began to take place from ‘fortress’ (which had largely died out in English by 1000), through ‘fortified town’, to simply ‘town’. Romance languages borrowed the word, giving for instance French bourg, from which English gets burgess  and bourgeois . Burrow  is probably a variant form.
=> bourgeois, burgess, burrow, bury
- borough (n.)
- Old English burg, burh "a dwelling or dwellings within a fortified enclosure," from Proto-Germanic *burgs "hill fort, fortress" (cognates: Old Frisian burg "castle," Old Norse borg "wall, castle," Old High German burg, buruc "fortified place, citadel," German Burg "castle," Gothic baurgs "city"), from PIE root *bhergh- (2) "high," with derivatives referring to hills, hill forts, fortified elevations (source also of Old English beorg "hill;" see barrow (n.2)).
In German and Old Norse, chiefly as "fortress, castle;" in Gothic, "town, civic community." Meaning shifted in Middle English from "fortress," to "fortified town," to simply "town" (especially one possessing municipal organization or sending representatives to Parliament). In U.S. (originally Pennsylvania, 1718) often an incorporated town; in Alaska, however, it is the equivalent of a county. The Scottish form is burgh. The Old English dative singular byrig survives in many place names as -bury.
- 1. The Department is inviting applications from groups within the Borough.
- 2. Families of six or seven are the norm in Borough Park.
- 3. The borough is twinned with Kasel in Germany.
- 4. the London borough of Westminster
- 5. Oradell is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
[ borough 造句 ]