- adj. 从前的，前者的；前任的
- n. 模型，样板；起形成作用的人
- n. (Former)人名；(法)福尔梅；(德、捷)福尔默
CET4 TEM4 IELTS 考 研 TOEFL CET6
来自古英语forma的比较级，来自PIE*pre-mo, 最早的，*pre-, 在先，词源同far, *mo, 最高级后缀，词源同intimate, ultimate. 该词实际上是最高级的比较级。比较foremost.
- former:  Former is a comparative form based on Middle English forme ‘first (in time or order)’, on the analogy of the superlative foremost  (which was originally formost ; the modern spelling came about through association with fore and most). Forme itself goes back to Old English forma, which was a descendant of a prehistoric Germanic superlative from derived from *fora ‘before’ (whence also English first, for, and fore). So untangling the suffixal accretions of centuries, former means etymologically ‘more most before’.
=> first, for, fore, primary
- former (adj.)
- "earlier in time," mid-12c., comparative of forme "first, earliest in time or order," from Old English forma "first," from Proto-Germanic *fruma-, *furma-, from PIE *pre-mo-, suffixed (superlative) form of root *per- (1) "forward, through; before; first" (see per). Probably patterned on formest (see foremost); it is an unusual case of a comparative formed from a superlative (the Old English -m is a superlative suffix). As "first of two," 1580s.
- former (n.)
- "one who gives form," mid-14c., agent noun from form (v.). The Latin agent noun was formator.
- 1. The unemployed executives include former sales managers, directors and accountants.
- 2. A former associate of Mr. Pierce's was among the project's boosters.
- 3. The former owner had not left any forwarding address.
- 4. The airline plans to auction its international routes to former competitors.
- 5. One former director embezzled $34 million in company funds.
[ former 造句 ]