CET4 TEM4 IELTS 考 研 CET6
来自拉丁语exigere, 尝试，测试，来自ex-, 向外，ig-, 做，尝试，词源同agent. 英国学者弗朗西斯·培根用该词命名一种新的写作文体。assay为其拼写异体词，但词义发生了变化。
- essay:  Essay and assay  are fundamentally the same word, and only began to diverge in the 15th century. Both come via Old French assaier from Vulgar Latin *exagiāre ‘weigh out’, a verb derived from late Latin exagium ‘weighing’; this in turn was formed from the Latin verb exigere ‘weigh’ (source of English exact and examine).
Accordingly, both originally had underlying connotations of ‘testing by weighing’. But while these have become more concrete in assay ‘analyse precious metals’, essay has, under the influence of French essayer, gone down the more metaphorical route from ‘test’ to ‘try’. The verb now survives only in fairly formal use, but the noun is much more frequent, owing to its application to a ‘short nonfictional literary composition’.
It was first used thus in English by Francis Bacon in 1597 as the title of a collection of such pieces, and it is generally assumed that he borrowed the idea from the Essais of Montaigne, published in 1580.
=> assay, exact, examine
- essay (n.)
- 1590s, "trial, attempt, endeavor," also "short, discursive literary composition" (first attested in writings of Francis Bacon, probably in imitation of Montaigne), from Middle French essai "trial, attempt, essay" (in Old French from 12c.), from Late Latin exagium "a weighing, a weight," from Latin exigere "drive out; require, exact; examine, try, test," from ex- "out" (see ex-) + agere (see act (n.)) apparently meaning here "to weigh." The suggestion is of unpolished writing. Compare assay, also examine.
- essay (v.)
- "to put to proof, test the mettle of," late 15c., from Middle French essaier, from essai "trial, attempt" (see essay (n.)). This sense has mostly gone with the divergent spelling assay. Meaning "to attempt" is from 1640s. Related: Essayed; essaying.
- 1. This was a troubling essay on the anatomy of nationhood.
- 2. His first essay in running a company was a notoriously tough undertaking.
- 3. The points you make are fine, but the whole essay lacks coherence.
- 4. Reading this essay was an elevating experience.
- 5. an essay on the causes of the First World War
[ essay 造句 ]