- courage[courage 词源字典]
- courage:  Modern English uses heart as a metaphor for ‘innermost feelings or passions’, but this is nothing new. Vulgar Latin took the Latin word cor ‘heart’ and derived from it *corāticum, a noun with just this sense. Borrowed into English via Old French corage, it was used from earliest times for a wide range of such passions, including ‘anger’ or ‘lust’, and it was not until the early 17th century that it became narrowed down in application to ‘bravery’.
=> cordial[courage etymology, courage origin, 英语词源]
- courage (n.)
- c. 1300, from Old French corage (12c., Modern French courage) "heart, innermost feelings; temper," from Vulgar Latin *coraticum (source of Italian coraggio, Spanish coraje), from Latin cor "heart," from PIE root *kerd- (1) "heart" (see heart (n.)) which remains a common metaphor for inner strength. In Middle English, used broadly for "what is in one's mind or thoughts," hence "bravery," but also "wrath, pride, confidence, lustiness," or any sort of inclination. Replaced Old English ellen, which also meant "zeal, strength."