- vi. 移植；嫁接；贪污
- vt. 移植；嫁接；贪污
- n. 移植；嫁接；渎职
- n. （非正式）脚踏实地地埋头苦干
CET6+ TEM8 GRE TOEFL
1. graphic => graft. 由于书写用的笔的笔尖与嫁接的插条、枝条很像而引申出此含义。
2. grave "dig" => graft（辛苦工作）。
来自PIE*gerbh, 刮，刻，切，词源同carve,graph. 用于植物学术语嫁接，即把切下来的一种植物移植到另一种植物上。俚语义行贿，即切下留作己用。比较 bribe.
- graft:  Graft, in its original sense ‘plant part inserted into a living plant’ (the application to skin and other animal tissue is a late 19thcentury development), came from its resemblance in shape to a pencil. Greek graphíon meant ‘writing implement, stylus’ (it was a derivative of the verb gráphein ‘write’, source of English graphic). It passed via Latin graphium into Old French as grafe, gradually changing in its precise application with the advance of writing technology.
By the time it reached Old French it denoted a ‘pencil’, and it was then that the resemblance to two artificially united plant stems was noted and the metaphor born. English took the word over as graff in the late 14th century (it actually survived in that form into the 19th century), and within a hundred years had added a -t to the end to give modern English graft. Graft ‘corruption’, first recorded in mid 19th-century America, may be the same word, perhaps derived from the notion of a graft as an ‘insertion’, hence ‘something extra, on the side’. Graft ‘hard work’ , on the other hand, is probably a different word, perhaps based on the English dialect verb graft ‘dig’, an alteration of grave ‘dig’.
- graft (n.1)
- "shoot inserted into another plant," late 15c. alteration of Middle English graff (late 14c.), from Old French graife "grafting knife, carving tool; stylus, pen," from Latin graphium "stylus," from Greek grapheion "stylus," from graphein "to write" (see -graphy). So called probably on resemblance of a stylus to the pencil-shaped shoots used in grafting. The terminal -t- in the English word is not explained. Surgical sense is from 1871.
- graft (n.2)
- "corruption," 1865, perhaps 1859, American English, perhaps from British slang graft "one's occupation" (1853), which is perhaps from the identical word meaning "a ditch, moat," literally "a digging" (1640s), from Middle Dutch graft, from graven "to dig" (see grave (v.)).
- graft (v.)
- late 15c., "insert a shoot from one tree into another," from graft (n.1). Figurative use by 1530s. Surgical sense by 1868. Related: Grafted; grafting.
- 1. I am having a skin graft on my arm soon.
- 2. His career has been one of hard graft.
- 3. Their success was the result of years of hard graft .
- 4. The Japanese tried to graft their own methods on to this different structure.
- 5. Owing to graft, the manager of this company was discharged from his post and prosecuted.
- 由于贪污, 这个公司的经理已被撤职查办.
[ graft 造句 ]