- vt. 磨碎；磨快
- vi. 磨碎；折磨
- n. 磨；苦工作
- n. (Grind)人名；(法、德)格林德
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磨成grain 细粒；ground 在地上磨
来自PIE*ghrendh, 磨，来自*ghreu的鼻音形式，词源同grit, grist.
- grind: [OE] Grind is part of the ancient Indo- European word-stock. Relatives such as Latin frendere ‘crush’ and Lithuanian grendu ‘rub’ point back to an Indo-European *ghrendh-. This perhaps denoted ‘crushing’ rather than what we would today call ‘grinding’; for in earliest times grain was crushed rather than ground to produce meal. The connotations of the word seem to have changed in step with advances in grainpulverizing technology. (The same is true, incidentally, in the case of Indo-European *mel-, which produced the majority of modern European words for ‘grind’, from German mahlen and Spanish moler to Russian molot’, and also gave English meal, mill, molar, etc.) Grist [OE] was formed from the same base as produced grind, and until the 15th century meant simply ‘grinding’.
- grind (v.)
- Old English grindan "to rub together, crush into powder, grate, scrape," forgrindan "destroy by crushing" (class III strong verb; past tense grand, past participle grunden), from Proto-Germanic *grindanan (cognates: Dutch grenden), related to ground, from PIE *ghrendh- "to grind" (cognates: Latin frendere "to gnash the teeth," Greek khondros "corn, grain," Lithuanian grendu "to scrape, scratch"). Meaning "to make smooth or sharp by friction" is from c. 1300. Most other Germanic languages use a verb cognate with Latin molere (compare Dutch malen, Old Norse mala, German mahlen).
- grind (n.)
- late Old English, "the gnashing of teeth;" c. 1200, "the act of chewing or grinding," from grind (v.). The sense "steady, hard, tedious work" first recorded 1851 in college student slang (but compare gerund-grinder, 1710); the meaning "hard-working student, one who studies with dogged application" is American English slang from 1864. Slang meaning "sexual intercourse" is by 1893.
- 1. The daily grind of government is done by Her Majesty's Civil Service.
- 2. There are people who want to humiliate you and grind you down.
- 3. Life continues to be a terrible grind for the ordinary person.
- 4. The grind of heavy machines could get on their nerves.
- 5. Would you please grind a pound of coffee for me?
- 请给我磨一磅咖啡好 吗 ?
[ grind 造句 ]