- n. 股份，股票；库存；血统；树干
- adj. 存货的，常备的；平凡的
- vt. 进货；备有；装把手于…
- vi. 囤积；办货；出新芽
- n. (Stock)人名；(德、匈、捷)施托克；(英、法、葡、瑞典)斯托克
CET4 TEM4 IELTS GRE 考 研 CET6
来自古英语 stocc,树干，树桩，柱子，来自 Proto-Germanic*stukkaz,树干，可能来自 PIE*steg, 棍子，柱子，树桩，词源同 stake,stack,stick.引申词义枪托，比喻义出身，家系，词义演变比 较 family tree.stock 存货，储备，供应，家畜，牲畜，股票，证券，高汤，原汤
词源不确定，可能来自 stock 的比喻义，由树干引申词义基础，来源，并引申相关词义。词 义证券，股票可能是受 stake 影响或直接来自该词拼写变体。
- stock: [OE] The word stock originally denoted a ‘tree-trunk’. It came from a prehistoric Germanic *stukkaz, which also produced German stock ‘stick’ and Swedish stock ‘log’. The lineal semantic descent to the stocks , a punishment device made from large pieces of wood, is clear enough, but how stock came to be used for a ‘supply, store’ (a sense first recorded in the 15th century) is more of a mystery.
It may be that a tradesman’s supply of goods was thought of metaphorically as the trunk of a tree, from which profits grew like branches; and another possibility is that the usage was inspired by an unrecorded application of stock to a wooden storage chest or money box. Stock ‘broth’ was so named (in the 18th century, apparently) because one keeps a ‘stock’ of it on hand in the stockpot, for use at need.
The original notion of a stout piece of wood is preserved in the derivative stocky , and also in stock-still  – literally ‘as still as a log’.
- stock (n.1)
- Old English stocc "stump, post, stake, tree trunk, log," also "pillory" (usually plural, stocks), from Proto-Germanic *stukkaz "tree trunk" (cognates: Old Norse stokkr "block of wood, trunk of a tree," Old Saxon, Old Frisian stok, Middle Dutch stoc "tree trunk, stump," Dutch stok "stick, cane," Old High German stoc "tree trunk, stick," German Stock "stick, cane;" also Dutch stuk, German Stück "piece"), from PIE *(s)teu- (1) "to push, stick, knock, beat" (see steep (adj.)).
Meaning "ancestry, family" (late 14c.) is a figurative use of the "tree trunk" sense (as in family tree). This is also the root of the meaning "heavy part of a tool," and "part of a rifle held against the shoulder" (1540s). Meaning "person as dull and senseless as a block or log" is from c. 1300; hence "a dull recipient of action or notice" (1540s).
Meaning "framework on which a boat was constructed" (early 15c.) led to figurative phrase on stocks "planned and commenced" (1660s). Taking stock "making an inventory" is attested from 1736. Stock, lock, and barrel "the whole of a thing" is recorded from 1817. Stock-still (late 15c.) is literally "as still as a tree trunk."
- stock (n.2)
- "supply for future use" (early 15c.), "sum of money" (mid-15c.), Middle English developments of stock (n.1), but the ultimate sense connection is uncertain. Perhaps the notion is of the "trunk" from which gains are an outgrowth, or from stock (n.1) in obsolete sense of "money-box" (c. 1400). Meaning "subscribed capital of a corporation" is from 1610s.
In stock "in the possession of a trader" is from 1610s. Meaning "broth made by boiling meat or vegetables" is from 1764. Theatrical use, in reference to a company regularly acting together at a given theater, is attested from 1761. Figurative phrase take stock in "regard as important" is from 1870. As the collective term for the movable property of a farm, it is recorded from 1510s; hence livestock.
- stock (v.)
- "to supply (a store) with stock," 1620s, from stock (n.2). Meaning "to lay up in store" is from c. 1700. Earliest sense is "to imprison in stocks" (early 14c.). Related: Stocked; stocking.
- stock (adj.)
- in reference to conversation, literature, "recurring, commonplace" (as in stock phrase), 1738, figurative use from sense "kept in store for constant use" (1620s), from stock (n.2).
- 1. She built up her fortune by cannily playing the stock market.
- 2. Drain the beans thoroughly and save the stock for soup.
- 3. Lemon and lime juice were both temporarily out of stock.
- 4. The stock market is convinced more cross-border deals will take place.
- 5. I had to stock the boat up with food.
[ stock 造句 ]