CET6+ TEM4 CET4 考 研 CET6
词源同 Turkey,土耳其。在 16 世纪时，有一种类似火鸡的禽鸟叫 guinea fowl,几内亚禽鸟，或 几内亚鸡，从马达加斯加经过土耳其进入欧洲，所以又称为 turkey,后来西班牙殖民者发现美 洲新大陆后，他们注意到当地有一种较大的火鸡长得与这种非洲禽鸟非常相似，且这种鸟个 头巨大，非常笨拙，因此，他们也把这种鸟叫作 turkey,并引进欧洲。后随着生物学分类更加 细化，人们发现这两种禽鸟实际上属于不同种类，为以示区别，后来就把美洲的禽鸟叫 turkey, 把非洲的禽鸟借用希腊语 meleagris 称呼。
- turkey:  The term turkey was originally applied to the ‘guinea-fowl’, apparently because the bird was imported into Europe from Africa by the Portuguese through Turkish territory. When the American bird we now know as the turkey was introduced to the British in the mid 16th century, it seems to have reminded them of the guinea fowl, for they transferred the guinea fowl’s name turkey to it.
- turkey (n.)
- 1540s, originally "guinea fowl" (Numida meleagris), a bird imported from Madagascar via Turkey, and called guinea fowl when brought by Portuguese traders from West Africa. The larger North American bird (Meleagris gallopavo) was domesticated by the Aztecs, introduced to Spain by conquistadors (1523) and thence to wider Europe. The word turkey first was applied to it in English 1550s because it was identified with or treated as a species of the guinea fowl, and/or because it got to the rest of Europe from Spain by way of North Africa, then under Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Indian corn was originally turkey corn or turkey wheat in English for the same reason.
The Turkish name for it is hindi, literally "Indian," probably influenced by Middle French dinde (c. 1600, contracted from poulet d'inde, literally "chicken from India," Modern French dindon), based on the then-common misconception that the New World was eastern Asia.
After the two birds were distinguished and the names differentiated, turkey was erroneously retained for the American bird, instead of the African. From the same imperfect knowledge and confusion Melagris, the ancient name of the African fowl, was unfortunately adopted by Linnæus as the generic name of the American bird. [OED]
The New World bird itself reputedly reached England by 1524 at the earliest estimate, though a date in the 1530s seems more likely. The wild turkey, the North American form of the bird, was so called from 1610s. By 1575, turkey was becoming the usual main course at an English Christmas. Meaning "inferior show, failure," is 1927 in show business slang, probably from the bird's reputation for stupidity. Meaning "stupid, ineffectual person" is recorded from 1951. Turkey shoot "something easy" is World War II-era, in reference to marksmanship contests where turkeys were tied behind a log with their heads showing as targets. To talk turkey (1824) supposedly comes from an old tale of a Yankee attempting to swindle an Indian in dividing up a turkey and a buzzard as food.
- country name, late 14c., from Medieval Latin Turchia, from Turcus (see Turk) + -ia.
- 1. She avoided the issue by ordering a turkey sandwich.
- 2. The haulage company was a carrier of machine parts to Turkey.
- 3. Dr Kengerli looks to Turkey as his mother country.
- 4. It's a proper Christmas dinner, with turkey and bread sauce.
- 5. Turkey and Greece were buffer states against the former Soviet Union.
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