英 ['skeɪpgəʊt] 美 ['skepɡot]
  • n. 替罪羊,替人顶罪者;替身
  • vt. 使成为…的替罪羊
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1. escape + goat 的缩略组合词。
scapegoat 替罪羊

缩写自 escape,逃跑,goat,羊。来自圣经中的宗教典故,古犹太人将每年的七月十日定为“赎 罪日”,并在这一天举行赎罪祭。其中通过拈阄决定两只公羊的命运,一只杀了作祭品,另 一只由大祭司将双手按在羊头上,宣称犹太民族在一年中所犯下的罪过,已经转嫁到到这头 羊身上。接着,使把这头替罪羊放逐到旷野,即将人的罪过带入无人之境,最后,把那赎罪 的羊烧死,因而引申词义替罪羊。见百度百科。

scapegoat: [16] In biblical times the ritual of Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement, included a ceremony involving two goats: one was sacrificed to God, and the other was sent off into the wilderness as the symbolic bearer of the people’s sins. This second goat was termed ‘azāzēl. That appears to have been a proper name, said in Jewish tradition to be that of a demon to whom the goat was sent, and may be linked with Aziz, the name of a Canaanite god.

Later commentators, however, interpreted it as equivalent to Hebrew ‘ēz ōzēl, which means ‘goat that departs’. In the Latin of the Vulgate, that was rendered as caper emissarius (whence the French expression bouc émissaire, literally ‘goat sent forth’), and William Tindale, in his 1530 translation of the Bible, expressed it as scapegoat (the first part, scape, is a shortened form of escape).

The modern metaphorical application to someone who takes the blame for others’ faults dates from the early 19th century.

scapegoat (n.)
1530, "goat sent into the wilderness on the Day of Atonement, symbolic bearer of the sins of the people," coined by Tyndale from scape (n.1) + goat to translate Latin caper emissarius, itself a translation in Vulgate of Hebrew 'azazel (Lev. xvi:8,10,26), which was read as 'ez ozel "goat that departs," but which others hold to be the proper name of a devil or demon in Jewish mythology (sometimes identified with Canaanite deity Aziz).

Jerome's reading also was followed by Martin Luther (der ledige Bock), Symmachus (tragos aperkhomenos), and others (compare French bouc émissaire), but the question of who, or what (or even where) is meant by 'azazel is a vexed one. The Revised Version (1884) simply restores Azazel. But the old translation has its modern defenders:
Azazel is an active participle or participial noun, derived ultimately from azal (connected with the Arabic word azala, and meaning removed), but immediately from the reduplicate form of that verb, azazal. The reduplication of the consonants of the root in Hebrew and Arabic gives the force of repetition, so that while azal means removed, azalzal means removed by a repetition of acts. Azalzel or azazel, therefore, means one who removes by a series of acts. ... The interpretation is founded on sound etymological grounds, it suits the context wherever the word occurs, it is consistent with the remaining ceremonial of the Day of Atonement, and it accords with the otherwise known religious beliefs and symbolical practices of the Israelites. [Rev. F. Meyrick, "Leviticus," London, 1882]
Meaning "one who is blamed or punished for the mistakes or sins of others" first recorded 1824; the verb is attested from 1943. Related: Scapegoated; scapegoating. For the formation, compare scapegrace, also scape-gallows "one who deserves hanging."
1. She felt she had been made a scapegoat for her boss's incompetence.


2. He has been made a scapegoat for the company's failures.


3. The old curmudgeon found a new scapegoat and that let me out.


4. I don't deserve to be made the scapegoat for a couple of bad results.


5. They ask me to join the party so that I'll be their scapegoat when trouble comes.


[ scapegoat 造句 ]